File Name: encyclopedia of zionism and israel .zip
- Resistance in the Smaller Ghettos of Eastern Europe: Glossary
- Encyclopedia of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
- Arab-Israeli wars
Zionism is a movement that aspired to the creation of a sovereign Jewish state. Having emerged at the end of the 19 th century, the Zionist ambition was achieved in with the founding of the state of Israel. The murderous pogroms in the eastern part of the continent , as well as the establishment of ethnic nationalism and a biological discourse, had devastating effects on the ability and desire of Jews to assimilate in Western societies.
Resistance in the Smaller Ghettos of Eastern Europe: Glossary
Arab-Israeli wars , series of military conflicts between Israeli forces and various Arab forces, most notably in —49, , , , , and Clashes broke out almost immediately between Jews and Arabs in Palestine. As British troops prepared to withdraw from Palestine, conflict continued to escalate, with both Jewish and Arab forces committing belligerences. The news of a brutal massacre there by Irgun Zvai Leumi and the Stern Gang forces spread widely and inspired both panic and retaliation. Days later, Arab forces attacked a Jewish convoy headed for Hadassah Hospital, killing The next day, Arab forces from Egypt , Transjordan Jordan , Iraq , Syria , and Lebanon occupied the areas in southern and eastern Palestine not apportioned to the Jews by the UN partition of Palestine and then captured east Jerusalem , including the small Jewish quarter of the Old City. By early the Israelis had managed to occupy all of the Negev up to the former Egypt-Palestine frontier, except for the Gaza Strip.
Encyclopedia of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
The following year he joined the Haganah , the pre-Israel Jewish defense forces. He rose to the rank of major general before retiring from the army in to practice law and pursue business ventures. As ambassador to the United Nations —78 , he drew international attention for his passionate, though unsuccessful, campaign to defeat the resolution that equated Zionism with racism. Two years later he was nominated for president, a largely ceremonial post. Once in office, he increased the role of the president. In he ran unopposed in his bid for reelection, winning a second term, the maximum allowed under Israeli law.
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Although the founding conference of the primary political part of Orthodox Jewry took place in May of , the serious organization of Agudat Israel in Poland began in It was internal Jewish developments, rather than external factors, which spurred the anti-Zionist Orthodox to organize politically for the first time. Agudat Israel represented Jews who wished to regulate all aspects of life according to tradition, with the assumption that this obligated Jews to manifest strong loyalty and peace toward the state in which they lived. Agudat Israel, therefore, felt threatened by Zionist activity including that of the religious Zionist party, Mizrachi , its culture and nationalism, as well as by the Bund's secularist understanding of its mission. Founded in in Vilna, it soon solidified its ideology: for autonomism, devoted to Yiddish language and culture, and secular nationalism. It proclaimed for Jews to live in "Doykeit" "hereness" , an ideological perspective that supported changes in the place where Jews had lived for a millennium.
(It s new because it builds on a edition, The Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel, edited by the late Raphael Patai, adding about 30 percent more.
The root of the term "Zionism" is the word "Zion," which very early in Jewish history became a synonym for Jerusalem. It had a special meaning as far back as after the destruction of the First Temple in expressing the yearning of the Jewish people for its homeland. Birnbaum himself explained the term in a letter of Nov. The extent to which the new word filled a need in the young movement can be gauged from the plethora of subtitles of Selbstemanzipation from its first appearance until the May 18, issue, when the definition "Organ der Zionisten" "Organ of the Zionists" was adopted. Herzl, who knew nothing of the semantic developments of the word Zionism, first used it to denote philanthropic-supported small-scale settlement.
Emanuel Neumann, chairman of the Herzl Press. Neumann said the encyclopedia will contain pages and nearly articles with illustrative photographs, maps and charts. He said the volumes are being published under the patronage of President Zalman Shazar, of Israel and were edited by Dr. Raphael Patai. They contain contributions from scholars from 35 countries, all experts in their particular fields.
What is Zionism? Does psychology of religion have anything to offer to the understanding of Zionism? The term Zion has traditionally been viewed as synonymous with Jerusalem Roth and Wigoder