philosophy politics and society pdf file

Philosophy Politics And Society Pdf File

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Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government , addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them. Its topics include politics , liberty , justice , property , rights , law , and the enforcement of laws by authority : what they are, if they are needed, what makes a government legitimate , what rights and freedoms it should protect, what form it should take, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

Political Society

Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government , addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them. Its topics include politics , liberty , justice , property , rights , law , and the enforcement of laws by authority : what they are, if they are needed, what makes a government legitimate , what rights and freedoms it should protect, what form it should take, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

Political theory also engages questions of a broader scope, tackling the political nature of phenomena and categories such as identity , culture , sexuality , race , wealth , human-nonhuman relations , ecology , religion , and more.

Political philosophy is a branch of philosophy , [2] but it has also been a major part of political science , within which a strong focus has historically been placed on both the history of political thought and contemporary political theory from normative political theory to various critical approaches. In the Oxford Handbook of Political Theory , the field is described as: "[ For a long time, the challenge for the identity of political theory has been how to position itself productively in three sorts of location: in relation to the academic disciplines of political science, history, and philosophy; between the world of politics and the more abstract, ruminative register of theory; between canonical political theory and the newer resources such as feminist and critical theory , discourse analysis , film and film theory , popular and political culture, mass media studies , neuroscience , environmental studies , behavioral science , and economics on which political theorists increasingly draw.

Indian political philosophy in ancient times demarcated a clear distinction between 1 nation and state 2 religion and state. The constitutions of Hindu states evolved over time and were based on political and legal treatises and prevalent social institutions. The institutions of state were broadly divided into governance, administration, defense, law and order. Mantranga, the principal governing body of these states, consisted of the King, Prime Minister, Commander in chief of army, Chief Priest of the King.

The Prime Minister headed the committee of ministers along with head of executive Maha Amatya. Chanakya was a 4th-century BC Indian political philosopher. The Arthashastra provides an account of the science of politics for a wise ruler, policies for foreign affairs and wars, the system of a spy state and surveillance and economic stability of the state. Chinese political philosophy dates back to the Spring and Autumn period , specifically with Confucius in the 6th century BC.

Chinese political philosophy was developed as a response to the social and political breakdown of the country characteristic of the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period. The major philosophies during the period, Confucianism , Legalism , Mohism , Agrarianism and Taoism , each had a political aspect to their philosophical schools.

Philosophers such as Confucius , Mencius , and Mozi , focused on political unity and political stability as the basis of their political philosophies. Confucianism advocated a hierarchical, meritocratic government based on empathy, loyalty, and interpersonal relationships. Legalism advocated a highly authoritarian government based on draconian punishments and laws. Mohism advocated a communal, decentralized government centered on frugality and asceticism.

The Agrarians advocated a peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism. Legalism was the dominant political philosophy of the Qin Dynasty , but was replaced by State Confucianism in the Han Dynasty. Prior to China's adoption of communism , State Confucianism remained the dominant political philosophy of China up to the 20th century.

Western political philosophy originates in the philosophy of ancient Greece , where political philosophy dates back to at least Plato. One of the first, extremely important classical works of political philosophy is Plato's Republic , [11] which was followed by Aristotle 's Nicomachean Ethics and Politics. The early Christian philosophy of Augustine of Hippo was heavily influenced by Plato.

A key change brought about by Christian thought was the moderation of the Stoicism and theory of justice of the Roman world, as well emphasis on the role of the state in applying mercy as a moral example. Augustine also preached that one was not a member of his or her city, but was either a citizen of the City of God Civitas Dei or the City of Man Civitas Terrena.

Augustine's City of God is an influential work of this period that attacked the thesis, held by many Christian Romans, that the Christian view could be realized on Earth. Thomas Aquinas meticulously dealt with the varieties of philosophy of law. According to Aquinas, there are four kinds of law:. Aquinas never discusses the nature or categorization of canon law.

There is scholarly debate surrounding the place of canon law within the Thomistic jurisprudential framework. Aquinas was an incredibly influential thinker in the Natural Law tradition. The rise of Islam , based on both the Qur'an and Muhammad strongly altered the power balances and perceptions of origin of power in the Mediterranean region.

Early Islamic philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between science and religion , and the process of ijtihad to find truth —in effect all philosophy was " political " as it had real implications for governance. This view was challenged by the "rationalist" Mutazilite philosophers, who held a more Hellenic view, reason above revelation, and as such are known to modern scholars as the first speculative theologians of Islam; they were supported by a secular aristocracy who sought freedom of action independent of the Caliphate.

By the late ancient period, however, the "traditionalist" Asharite view of Islam had in general triumphed. According to the Asharites, reason must be subordinate to the Quran and the Sunna. Islamic political philosophy , was, indeed, rooted in the very sources of Islam —i. The political conceptions of Islam such as kudrah power , sultan , ummah , cemaa obligation -and even the "core" terms of the Qur'an—i. Hence, not only the ideas of the Muslim political philosophers but also many other jurists and ulama posed political ideas and theories.

For example, the ideas of the Khawarij in the very early years of Islamic history on Khilafa and Ummah , or that of Shia Islam on the concept of Imamah are considered proofs of political thought.

The clashes between the Ehl-i Sunna and Shia in the 7th and 8th centuries had a genuine political character. Political thought was not purely rooted in theism, however. Aristotleanism flourished as the Islamic Golden Age saw rise to a continuation of the peripatetic philosophers who implemented the ideas of Aristotle in the context of the Islamic world. Abunaser, Avicenna and Ibn Rushd where part of this philosophical school who claimed that human reason surpassed mere coincidence and revelation.

They believed, for example, that natural phenomena occur because of certain rules made by god , not because god interfered directly unlike Al-Ghazali and his followers. Other notable political philosophers of the time include Nizam al-Mulk , a Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire who composed the Siyasatnama , or the "Book of Government" in English. In it, he details the role of the state in terms of political affairs i.

In his other work, he explains how the state should deal with other issues such as supplying jobs to immigrants like the Turkmens who were coming from the north present day southern Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The 14th-century Arab scholar Ibn Khaldun is considered one of the greatest political theorists.

The British philosopher-anthropologist Ernest Gellner considered Ibn Khaldun's definition of government , " For Ibn Khaldun, government should be restrained to a minimum for as a necessary evil, it is the constraint of men by other men. Medieval political philosophy in Europe was heavily influenced by Christian thinking. It had much in common with the Mutazilite Islamic thinking in that the Roman Catholics thought subordinating philosophy to theology did not subject reason to revelation but in the case of contradictions, subordinated reason to faith as the Asharite of Islam.

The Scholastics by combining the philosophy of Aristotle with the Christianity of St. Augustine emphasized the potential harmony inherent in reason and revelation. Thomas Aquinas who helped reintroduce Aristotle 's works, which had only been transmitted to Catholic Europe through Muslim Spain, along with the commentaries of Averroes. Aquinas's use of them set the agenda, for scholastic political philosophy dominated European thought for centuries even unto the Renaissance. Some medieval political philosophers, such as Aquinas in his Summa Theologica , developed the idea that a king who is a tyrant is no king at all and could be overthrown.

Others, like Nicole Oresme in his Livre de Politiques , categorically denied this right to overthrow an unjust ruler. The Magna Carta , viewed by many as a cornerstone of Anglo-American political liberty, explicitly proposes the right to revolt against the ruler for justice's sake. Other documents similar to Magna Carta are found in other European countries such as Spain and Hungary. During the Renaissance secular political philosophy began to emerge after about a century of theological political thought in Europe.

While the Middle Ages did see secular politics in practice under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire , the academic field was wholly scholastic and therefore Christian in nature. That work, as well as The Discourses , a rigorous analysis of classical antiquity , did much to influence modern political thought in the West. A minority including Jean-Jacques Rousseau interpreted The Prince as a satire meant to be given to the Medici after their recapture of Florence and their subsequent expulsion of Machiavelli from Florence.

At any rate, Machiavelli presents a pragmatic and somewhat consequentialist view of politics, whereby good and evil are mere means used to bring about an end—i. Thomas Hobbes , well known for his theory of the social contract , goes on to expand this view at the start of the 17th century during the English Renaissance.

Although neither Machiavelli nor Hobbes believed in the divine right of kings, they both believed in the inherent selfishness of the individual. It was necessarily this belief that led them to adopt a strong central power as the only means of preventing the disintegration of the social order.

During the Enlightenment period, new theories emerged about what the human was and is and about the definition of reality and the way it was perceived, along with the discovery of other societies in the Americas, and the changing needs of political societies especially in the wake of the English Civil War , the American Revolution , the French Revolution , and the Haitian Revolution. These theorists were driven by two basic questions: one, by what right or need do people form states; and two, what the best form for a state could be.

These fundamental questions involved a conceptual distinction between the concepts of "state" and "government. The term "government" would refer to a specific group of people who occupied the institutions of the state, and create the laws and ordinances by which the people, themselves included, would be bound.

This conceptual distinction continues to operate in political science , although some political scientists, philosophers, historians and cultural anthropologists have argued that most political action in any given society occurs outside of its state, and that there are societies that are not organized into states that nevertheless must be considered in political terms.

As long as the concept of natural order was not introduced, the social sciences could not evolve independently of theistic thinking. Since the cultural revolution of the 17th century in England, which spread to France and the rest of Europe, society has been considered subject to natural laws akin to the physical world.

Political and economic relations were drastically influenced by these theories as the concept of the guild was subordinated to the theory of free trade , and Roman Catholic dominance of theology was increasingly challenged by Protestant churches subordinate to each nation-state , which also in a fashion the Roman Catholic Church often decried angrily preached in the vulgar or native language of each region.

Free trade, as opposed to these religious theories, is a trade policy that does not restrict imports or exports. It can also be understood as the free market idea applied to international trade.

In government, free trade is predominantly advocated by political parties that hold liberal economic positions while economically left-wing and nationalist political parties generally support protectionism, the opposite of free trade. However, the enlightenment was an outright attack on religion, particularly Christianity.

Historians have described Voltaire's description of the history of Christianity as "propagandistic". Voltaire is partially responsible for the misattribution of the expression Credo quia absurdum to the Church Fathers. Your Majesty will do the human race an eternal service by extirpating this infamous superstition, I do not say among the rabble, who are not worthy of being enlightened and who are apt for every yoke; I say among honest people, among men who think, among those who wish to think.

My one regret in dying is that I cannot aid you in this noble enterprise, the finest and most respectable which the human mind can point out. As well, there was no spread of this doctrine within the New World and the advanced civilizations of the Aztec , Maya , Inca , Mohican , Delaware, Huron and especially the Iroquois. The Iroquois philosophy, in particular, gave much to Christian thought of the time and in many cases actually inspired some of the institutions adopted in the United States: for example, Benjamin Franklin was a great admirer of some of the methods of the Iroquois Confederacy , and much of early American literature emphasized the political philosophy of the natives.

After , they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy, as they were also Iroquoian-speaking, and became known as the Six Nations.

John Locke in particular exemplified this new age of political theory with his work Two Treatises of Government. In it Locke proposes a state of nature theory that directly complements his conception of how political development occurs and how it can be founded through contractual obligation.

Locke stood to refute Sir Robert Filmer 's paternally founded political theory in favor of a natural system based on nature in a particular given system. The theory of the divine right of kings became a passing fancy, exposed to the type of ridicule with which John Locke treated it.

Unlike Machiavelli and Hobbes but like Aquinas, Locke would accept Aristotle's dictum that man seeks to be happy in a state of social harmony as a social animal. Unlike Aquinas's preponderant view on the salvation of the soul from original sin , Locke believes man's mind comes into this world as tabula rasa.

For Locke, knowledge is neither innate, revealed nor based on authority but subject to uncertainty tempered by reason, tolerance and moderation. According to Locke, an absolute ruler as proposed by Hobbes is unnecessary, for natural law is based on reason and seeking peace and survival for man.

Political philosophy

Political Thought is a part of the study of Political Science. Ideal political reforms and political ideologies Individualism liberalism socialism, communism and others. It is a part of the study of Political Science. Each political ideology is a particular and distinct philosophy of state. Thus Political Science and Philosophy are related but two different and distinct disciplines of study. Each uses the knowledge of other. Philosophy is much broader subject of study than Political Science.

Plato 's political philosophy has been the subject of much criticism. In Plato's Republic , Socrates is highly critical of democracy and proposes an aristocracy ruled by philosopher-kings. Plato's political philosophy has thus often been considered totalitarian by some. In the Republic, Plato's Socrates raises a number of objections to democracy. He claims that democracy is a danger due to excessive freedom. He also argues that in a system in which everyone has a right to rule all sorts of selfish people who care nothing for the people but are only motivated by their own personal desires are able to attain power.

The phrase political society is used in different ways, generally revolving around the process by which the interests and values of civil society are articulated and aggregated for action by government. A large variety of groups and organizations take part in this process including political parties, lobbies, advisory councils, social movements, citizen and consultative assemblies, participatory budgeting meetings, Bolivarian circles and neighborhood and community councils. More is known about each of these kinds of groups and organizations than about how they function collectively to aggregate and articulate the interests and values of a society as a whole. The phrase political society can be traced to the political philosopher John Locke — who used it synonymously with civil society, but with a broader meaning than that term usually has today. A political society, for Locke, was one that men entered voluntary through a social contract, as contrasted

Social contract

Aristotle b. Along with his teacher Plato, Aristotle is generally regarded as one of the most influential ancient thinkers in a number of philosophical fields, including political theory. Aristotle was born in Stagira in northern Greece, and his father was a court physician to the king of Macedon. As a young man he studied in Plato's Academy in Athens.

Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state , government , politics , liberty , justice and the enforcement of a legal code by authority. It is Ethics applied to a group of people, and discusses how a society should be set up and how one should act within a society. Individual rights such as the right to life, liberty, property, the pursuit of happiness, free speech, self-defense, etc state explicitly the requirements for a person to benefit rather than suffer from living in a society.

The group takes a philosophical perspective in its focus on the social, political and cultural topics. Our aim is to study concepts, analyze and develop key theories and apply critical thinking to the understanding of changes in culture, politics and society. We promote basic research on the view of man and society, on the foundation of normative theories of society, reflection on prevailing rhetoric in the political field and the relationship between politics and other areas of life. The members of the group have their background from different philosophical and methodological lines.

 Я знаю.  - Он улыбнулся.  - Но на этот раз, - он вытянул левую руку так, чтобы она попала в камеру, и показал золотой ободок на безымянном пальце, - на этот раз у меня есть кольцо.

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  1. Tanguy G.

    Confucianism is an ethics tied intimately with political philosophy.

    01.01.2021 at 23:19 Reply
  2. Leonie M.

    of sociology, anthropology, political studies and philosophy, Politics and Society can, in collaboration with students' learning outside school, in home and.

    04.01.2021 at 15:50 Reply
  3. Iva D.

    members of society. I mentioned at the outset what appears a rather empty defijinition of political philosophy: systematic reflection about the nature and purpose.

    08.01.2021 at 17:53 Reply
  4. Graningrimom

    Computer networks 4th edition pdf trade life cycle of otc derivatives pdf

    10.01.2021 at 04:47 Reply
  5. Baptiste B.

    Social contract , in political philosophy , an actual or hypothetical compact, or agreement, between the ruled and their rulers, defining the rights and duties of each.

    10.01.2021 at 19:20 Reply

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