Poor And Slow System As A Source Of Stress In Call Centre Pdf
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Chairman Tiberi, ranking member Heinrich, it is a pleasure to once again come before this committee, and I thank you for holding this hearing on the state of economic opportunity in the United States.
- Slow Down to Make Better Decisions in a Crisis
- Expanding the Supply of Affordable Housing for Low-Wage Workers
- 27 Sources of Stress within the Call Center
- Slow Down to Make Better Decisions in a Crisis
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Slow Down to Make Better Decisions in a Crisis
Policymakers must focus on improving the jobs-housing fit—or connecting jobs with affordable housing—which is essential for working families and for the economy. Rising income inequality, combined with high housing costs, and a shortage of affordable rental housing across the nation and particularly in large metropolitan regions, has been creating a significant financial burden for growing numbers of working families, especially those of low-income workers.
Lower-wage workers in particular are the most likely to have incurred a loss of income due to the pandemic. The U. As Figure 1 shows, being a renter is more common among low-income households than among those with higher incomes. The rental affordability problem is exacerbated by the shortage of affordable rental housing, as the supply of low-cost housing has dropped and new construction has been intended largely for the higher end of the market.
While it is important to ensure that renters, especially those in the lower brackets of the income distribution, remain in their homes during the pandemic, it is equally critical for the nation to be prepared for an eventual economic recovery.
Most importantly, the mere addition of new jobs to metropolitan areas once their economies recover cannot ensure that all residents have equal access to economic opportunities unless there is a sufficient supply of affordable units to house the local workforce. In fact, in many cities, workers often live far from available job opportunities.
The distance from jobs affects both employees and employers. As workers move farther from their workplace in search for affordable housing, long commutes affect the quality of life of families, reduce productivity, and contribute to employee turnover, especially among low- and moderate-wage workers. Many low-wage workers have been moving away from or have not been moving to places where they could earn higher wages.
Aggregated across the nation, the lack of worker migration to higher-wage jobs in growing metropolitan regions due to a lack of affordable housing lowers total economic output. To ensure that all workers benefit from an eventual economic recovery and economic growth, it is important to understand and address the jobs-housing challenges that low-wage workers face and advance policies that promote better access to affordable housing in conjunction with greater proximity and connectivity to job opportunities.
People employed in low-wage jobs spend a greater portion of their income on housing and transportation than those employed in high-wage jobs, and they are more constrained in their ability to commute long distances. In addition, it would address regional inequity by responding to the fiscal imbalances across jurisdictional boundaries.
These imbalances are created by the gap between the substantial sales tax revenues generated by low-wage, job-rich retail and restaurant industries in some localities, and the fiscal drain experienced by jurisdictions providing the largest share of affordable housing in a region, which generally produces less tax revenue. And finally, ensuring a good jobs-housing fit by increasing the supply of affordable housing would create much-needed jobs, especially during the post-pandemic economic recovery.
This report examines the jobs-housing fit for low-wage workers in 15 large U. After discussing prevalent trends in the geographic distribution of jobs and housing, the report explores the notion of the jobs-housing fit and describes the distribution of this measure across the selected sample of metropolitan areas.
There is no agreed-upon definition of low-wage workers in the literature and policy discussions. The analysis indicates that in most metropolitan areas, a low-wage jobs-affordable housing fit that is poor characterizes many of the jurisdictions in which low-wage jobs are concentrated and where there is a shortage of affordable housing for low-wage workers employed in those jurisdictions.
It is important to better connect low-wage workers with their workplaces by strategically creating affordable housing near jobs and accessible transit options. In addition, addressing any poor jobs-housing fit ought to be a regional effort.
In fact, in any given metropolitan area, there may be jurisdictions that perform better than others in terms of the jobs-housing fit. Furthermore, remote areas are often the only options available to low-income families but are not well connected to both central and suburban job-rich areas. This report recommends a large-scale direct investment by the federal government in metropolitan land trusts MLTs on which equitable transit-oriented developments eTODs can be established, particularly in areas where the low-wage jobs-affordable housing fit is poor, in proximity to low-wage job hot spots, and where public transit connects the low-wage workforce to clusters of low-wage jobs.
Specifically, this report recommends the following:. A persistent spatial mismatch—that is to say, where low-income workers live is not where suitable jobs are located—characterizes several U. Much of the economic inequality and disadvantage experienced by low-income workers can be attributed to systemic patterns of economic development, investment, and socioeconomic exclusion at geographic levels that go beyond the individual neighborhood and encompass entire metropolitan regions and labor markets.
The suburbs also attracted manufacturing jobs and retail trade because of cheaper land and access to wealthier customers. As suburbs flourished, city-center neighborhoods, typically featuring a large population of color, were left behind and underwent a decadeslong cycle of disinvestment and poverty concentration. Employment in heavy manufacturing industries declined, and while manufacturing and other blue-collar industries relocated out of central cities, job growth tended to be concentrated in the sectors that are based on high and low technology and draw upon a mix of skilled and unskilled workers.
These patterns spurred significant interest among academics in what is known as spatial mismatch. The location of employment and population has shifted further in more recent years.
These have spurred a return to the city in several parts of the United States and the end of white suburban flight. Highly visible reinvestment and rehabilitation by upper-class gentrifiers have boosted the centralization of headquarters and executive decision-making centers. Census data show that from to , employment centers located in downtown areas in some of the largest metropolitan areas of the nation have experienced faster job growth than metropolitan peripheries, signaling not only the continuing shift of job growth toward high-wage knowledge and low-wage service jobs 30 but also the resurgence of urban living and the increasing competitiveness of central cities compared with suburban locations in the wake of the Great Recession.
Since the financial crash of , major innovative companies and high-tech startups, which used to be concentrated in suburban office parks, have opted for more central city locations and the denser parts of metropolitan areas to attract and retain educated workers, be closer to their customers, and facilitate work relationships with other firms and institutions. Take, for example, Amazon, which established its headquarters in downtown Seattle, or Cirrus Logic, with its headquarters in the downtown district of Austin, Texas.
As more affluent groups have moved to the urban core, lower-income families and large portions of the working class have been priced out of their neighborhoods—mainly a result of gentrification, rising housing prices and property values, and a growing shortage of affordable rental housing.
The movement of low-income families to the suburbs has been prompted by the need to find affordable rental housing, which is available in older suburban neighborhoods characterized by aging homes vacated by middle-class families.
The wages of such jobs have remained stagnant and have not kept up with the cost of suburban living. Most importantly, low-income households moving to the suburbs typically end up living in job-poor areas and in neighborhoods lacking public transit networks that could connect workers living in impoverished neighborhoods to good job opportunities located both in suburban areas and in urban cores.
A Brookings Institution study indicates that residents in high-poverty and majority-minority neighborhoods, many of which are in suburban areas, have experienced notable declines in job proximity. These individuals tend to face considerable spatial barriers to employment, as they are more constrained by the cost of housing and commuting compared with higher-income and higher-skilled workers, who can afford commuting by car and exercise greater residential choices.
The remainder of this report focuses on the notion of the jobs-housing fit, which serves as a useful measure for understanding the housing needs of low-wage workers and for assessing if and how the local housing supply meets those needs in the 15 large U.
The notion of the jobs-housing fit refers to the extent to which locally available housing fits the ability of locally employed workers to afford it. The jobs-housing fit analytical approach was pioneered by professors Chris Benner and Alex Karner to evaluate how the housing supply in the San Francisco Bay Area meets the housing needs of households of different income levels. Much of that literature has been concerned with the importance of workers residing close to their workplaces in addressing transportation and environmental challenges, such as congestion, vehicle miles traveled, and greenhouse gas emissions.
These imbalances have particularly affected middle- and low-income workers for whom housing affordability is critical and often out of reach in job-rich suburban communities, where the production of affordable units and the development of high-density neighborhoods tend to be discouraged by local zoning regulations. Benner and Karner support the argument that while ensuring parity between the number of jobs and the amount of housing units matters in regional planning, it is not enough.
Rather, a jobs-housing fit is more appropriate because, from an equity perspective, it is important to match the wage levels of local jobs and the affordability of local housing: Because high-income workers inherently have more flexibility and choice in terms of their housing location decisions, and because of the dynamics of suburban housing markets, this is a problem that manifests primarily in suburban locations that tend to underprovide affordable housing options for low-wage workers.
The marginal value of a dollar saved is also likely to be higher for a low-wage worker. When provided with an opportunity to live closer to where they work, the reduction in transportation costs would be comparably much more attractive for a low-wage worker than a high-wage worker, all else equal. Low-income households, particularly households of color, are disadvantaged by a poor jobs-housing fit, as they are known to face several spatial barriers in their housing search, including discrimination in the housing market and exclusionary zoning practices that greatly limit their housing options, especially close to their workplaces.
Benner and Karner operationalize the low-wage jobs-affordable housing fit as the ratio between the number of low-wage jobs and the number of rental units affordable to low-wage workers in a locality. A key finding of the study is that cities in the Bay Area experiencing a growth in high-wage jobs are also experiencing a significant growth in low-wage jobs.
However, these cities are not producing enough housing affordable to workers employed in low-wage jobs. The analysis presented in this report adopts the framework developed by Benner and Karner and applies some modifications to the jobs-housing fit metric and the unit of analysis. In addition, when comparing different housing and labor markets characterized by varying costs of living, the variable needs some adjustments in the form of multipliers that would allow it to be contextualized to some extent.
This limitation is particularly critical when combining information on low-wage jobs and data on housing affordability, as in the case of the jobs-housing fit metric for which it is necessary to establish what an affordable monthly rent would be for low-wage workers. The analysis presented in this report, which focuses on 15 metropolitan areas characterized by different costs of living, employs educational attainment as a proxy for low-wage labor.
Specifically, the analysis focuses on workers with no more than a high school degree. Census Bureau publishes median annual earnings by educational attainment for each metropolitan statistical area MSA.
As illustrated in Table 1, the threshold income and affordable monthly rent vary across the sample of metropolitan areas. For the final calculation of the low-wage jobs-affordable housing fit, data on jobs come from the LODES dataset whereas data on affordable housing come from the ACS — five-year estimates. For every place in each of the selected metropolitan areas, the sum of low-wage jobs is divided by the sum of housing units 57 with a rent no greater than the affordable monthly rent for the specific metropolitan area.
A ratio greater than 2 indicates that a locality has more low-wage jobs than rental units affordable to low-wage workers, assuming two workers per household. Table 2 illustrates some economic and housing characteristics of the selected metropolitan areas.
From to , these areas registered an average percentage increase in total nonfarm jobs of at least 20 percent, in the cases of Los Angeles and Seattle, and up to 32 percent, in Austin, Texas. The areas registering the highest rates of job growth feature a mix of high-skill knowledge-based and service-based economies. With a few exceptions, the metropolitan areas in the sample feature a tight rental housing market, as their rental vacancy rates are typically much lower than the average U.
In most cases, vacancy rates in these metropolitan areas have declined since , indicating a growing demand of rental units. The Riverside, California; Dallas; and Atlanta metropolitan areas have experienced similar significant drops.
In all sample metropolitan areas, at least 43 percent of renters have experienced a housing cost burden—that is to say, they spend more than 30 percent of their income for housing costs.
The share of cost-burdened renters is particularly large in coastal areas such as Riverside, Miami, and Los Angeles, where more than 50 percent of renter households sustain a rental affordability problem.
The table in the Appendix of this report illustrates the housing cost burden for selected low-wage service occupations in the 15 metropolitan areas. Take for example, janitors: The median wage of janitors in these metropolitan areas is much lower than the annual income needed to afford a one-bedroom housing unit. With few exceptions, data for other service occupations show similar gaps. Commute flow data indicate that in most of the selected metropolitan areas, more than 50 percent of workers reside more than 10 miles from their workplaces.
As discussed in the previous section of this report, proximity to jobs is particularly important for low-wage workers. Across the selected metropolitan areas, low-wage jobs represent between 22 percent, in Charlotte, and 35 percent, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Salt Lake City, of primary jobs. When their geographic distribution is compared with that of rental units affordable to low-wage workers, it is clear that in most areas, a low-wage jobs-affordable housing fit that is poor characterizes many of the jurisdictions in which low-wage jobs tend to be concentrated and where there is a shortage of affordable housing for low-wage workers employed in those jurisdictions.
The following figures—Figures 2 through 16—show the low-wage jobs-affordable housing fit metric across the jurisdictions of the selected metropolitan areas. The metropolitan areas are ordered based on the severity of housing affordability for low-wage workers.
Values up to 2 indicate a relatively good fit, whereas values larger than 2 point to a poor fit. This analysis was performed to highlight areas where significant concentrations of low-wage jobs occur and to bring attention to the fact that these clusters often cross the boundaries of different jurisdictions.
The hot spot analysis, therefore, is useful for underscoring the importance of addressing poor jobs-housing fit outcomes at the regional level rather than at the individual jurisdiction level. The maps show that there are some variations across the metropolitan areas with respect to the geographic distribution of the jobs-housing fit metric. This is not surprising, as the 15 metropolitan areas are very different in terms of size, topography, development patterns, land use, and transportation infrastructure.
These factors affect the distribution of jobs and housing across the regions—and consequently the commute patterns and housing affordability of their workforce. The auto-oriented Los Angeles metropolitan area is characterized by a polycentric spatial structure that, rather than feature just a unique central business district, has multiple business cores outside of the original central business district. Economic restructuring and demographic changes have had major impacts on the labor market of this region.
At the same time, the sectors based on high-technology production and low-skill services, as well as the business and financial service sector, have continued to expand. In the past five years, however, population growth has slowed significantly, largely because the metropolitan area struggles with housing affordability and the lack of new home construction.
And because of the geography of the area, building new housing is a challenge. The 7,square-mile region is home to 7.
Expanding the Supply of Affordable Housing for Low-Wage Workers
With the news around the COVID pandemic developing quickly, people are making decisions — often quickly — on everything from whether to cancel meetings to how to best project their family and colleagues. In a time of crisis and uncertainty, there are several psychological factors that impact our ability to make decisions. To make better choices, we need to slow down and access the deliberative reasoning part of our brain. Any decision to act should be based on deliberation, sober reflection on data, and discussion with experts — not in reaction to a headline or a tweet. The news about the spread of COVID is changing fast — and people are trying to make decisions about everything from whether to cancel vacations to how to best protect themselves and their communities. There are several psychological reasons why you may find decision-making difficult right now. First, there is a looming present threat.
Below is a list of 27 sources of stress that call center agents experience. and rigid surveillance systems are oppressive and emotionally demanding. Lack of social support from both supervisors and co-workers has an effect on burnout. Slow boot and processing times, inefficient call center software or working from too.
27 Sources of Stress within the Call Center
The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres. While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase.
There are various arguments about the causes of unemployment in South Africa, some of which are:. Some research shows that the deliberate exclusion of black people from the educational system and from skilled occupations under apartheid contributed to high rates of unemployment today. Inadequate education and lack of productivity is costing jobs.
Slow Down to Make Better Decisions in a Crisis
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Originating in a period of rising crime rates and social foment and driven by punitive sentencing policy, the steep increase in incarceration in the United States was carried out with little regard for an objective evaluation of benefits or possible harms.
Signs Of Stress In Rats. Stress can motivate us to do things in our best interests, such as study for exams, visit the doctor As previously stated, scientific interest in stress goes back nearly a century. Learning to cope with stress in a healthy way will make you, the people you care about, and those around you become more resilient. The characteristics of Metal Rat are bold, aggressive, talented, witty, eloquent, tactical and creative. Nearly half of parents of children under age 18 say their stress levels related to the coronavirus pandemic are high. Identifying the things that cause stress in your life can help you avoid potentially stressful situations, and help you prepare to handle stressful situations when they can't be avoided. Stress affects us all.
Feeling like there are too many pressures and demands on you? Losing sleep worrying about tests and schoolwork? Eating on the run because your schedule is just too busy? You're not alone. Everyone feels stressed out at times — adults, teens, and even kids. But you can avoid getting too stressed out by handling everyday pressures and problems, staying calm, asking for help when you need it, and making time to relax. Stress is a response to pressure or threat.
Occupational Safety and Health in Call Centres pursuant to Section 57 of the provide a workplace and safe system of work so employees are not exposed to hazards; Rather than explaining stress with simple 'cause-and-effect' factors, it can be by poor judgment, slower reactions to events and decreased skills.
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Policymakers must focus on improving the jobs-housing fit—or connecting jobs with affordable housing—which is essential for working families and for the economy. Rising income inequality, combined with high housing costs, and a shortage of affordable rental housing across the nation and particularly in large metropolitan regions, has been creating a significant financial burden for growing numbers of working families, especially those of low-income workers. Lower-wage workers in particular are the most likely to have incurred a loss of income due to the pandemic. The U. As Figure 1 shows, being a renter is more common among low-income households than among those with higher incomes. The rental affordability problem is exacerbated by the shortage of affordable rental housing, as the supply of low-cost housing has dropped and new construction has been intended largely for the higher end of the market.
Role conflict is defined as the simultaneous occurrence of two or more types of pressures such that compliance with one would make the compliance with the other more difficult. The conflicting demands between pressure to improve operational efficiency response time, waiting time, productivity and service level , maximize customer satisfaction and achieving excellent information gathering all create stress within the call center environment. Stress can result from inconsistencies between job performance expectations and performance evaluation criteria. Agents who are asked to increase customer satisfaction but are being evaluated based only on KPIs such as service level will feel torn between meeting expectations and improving how they will be evaluated. Role ambiguity results when the call center agent is uncertain about job requirements, supervisory expectations or when or how their performance will be evaluated.
The educational setbacks can have significant impacts on academic success, college admissions and career opportunities. This gap has ripple effects that may last an entire life. The report is based on data collected from fifteen school districts covering Mecosta County, St. Clair County and the eastern region of the Upper Peninsula, spanning from the Tahquamenon area to St. Ignace and Sault Ste. Other researchers from the Quello Center — including Laleah Fernandez, assistant director; Craig Robertson, doctoral student; and Johannes Bauer, professor and director — contributed to the report. The researchers collected and analyzed three sets of data on student Internet access and academic performance that included in-class surveys in 21 schools, PSAT and SAT test scores and home Internet speed tests.
Stress is a situation that triggers a particular biological response. When you perceive a threat or a major challenge, chemicals and hormones surge throughout your body. Stress triggers your fight-or-flight response in order to fight the stressor or run away from it.
Внезапно кто-то начал колотить кулаком по стеклянной стене. Оба они - Хейл и Сьюзан - даже подпрыгнули от неожиданности. Это был Чатрукьян. Он снова постучал. У него был такой вид, будто он только что увидел Армагеддон.
Я хочу его забрать. - У м-меня его. Беккер покровительственно улыбнулся и перевел взгляд на дверь в ванную.