File Name: somogyi effect and dawn phenomenon .zip
November 29, Journal article Open Access.
- Chronic Somogyi rebound
- The Dawn Phenomenon: What It Is and How to Fix It
- Somogyi effect: Causes and prevention
Chronic Somogyi rebound
The Somogyi effect leads to high blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. It happens when low blood sugar triggers a rebound effect, leading to high blood sugar.
If a person notices high blood glucose levels in the morning, the Somogyi effect may be responsible, but the rise could have resulted from a similar effect, called the dawn phenomenon. Many people know about the Somogyi effect, but it remains controversial due to a lack of scientific evidence.
People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to experience it than people with type 2 diabetes. Distinguishing between the Somogyi effect and the dawn phenomenon is important, as it may indicate that a person needs to adjust their treatment plan.
The Somogyi effect is named after Michael Somogyi, a Hungarian American researcher, who first described it. This can occur when a person exercises a lot, goes a long time without a snack, or takes more insulin before bed than they need. Insulin reduces the amount of glucose in the blood. If glucose levels fall too far, low blood sugar results. The medical term for low blood sugar is hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia puts stress on the body, and this can trigger the release of hormones.
These include the stress hormones:. Glucagon triggers the liver to convert stores of glycogen into glucose. This can cause blood glucose levels to rebound high. The stress hormones keep glucose levels high by making cells less responsive to insulin. This is insulin resistance.
There is no single target for glucose in the morning. A doctor will help determine the targets for each person. Doctors and people with diabetes often refer to the Somogyi effect, but there is little scientific evidence for the theory.
For example, one small study found that hyperglycemia — high blood sugar — upon waking is likely to happen if a person does not take enough insulin before bed. The researchers also found that participants who appeared to have rebound hyperglycemia did not have higher levels of growth hormone, cortisol, or glucagon than others. A study included 88 participants with type 1 diabetes who underwent continuous glucose monitoring CGM.
The researchers found that participants who experienced hyperglycemia upon waking had not experienced hypoglycemia during the night. In other words, there was no evidence of the Somogyi effect. However, in another study , researchers analyzed the glucose profiles of 85 people with type 1 diabetes, collecting data for nights.
They found that They concluded that the Somogyi effect was the most common cause of morning hyperglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes who did not manage their blood sugar effectively. The dawn effect involves a rise in early morning blood sugar levels.
This results from declining levels of insulin and an increase in growth hormones. Everyone experiences higher blood sugar levels in the morning, whether they have diabetes or not.
If a person does not have diabetes, the body can respond to the rise in blood sugar by releasing insulin , thus maintaining steady glucose levels. This essentially nullifies the dawn phenomenon. The difference between the Somogyi effect and the dawn phenomenon is that the Somogyi effect is a response to low blood sugar during the night. Testing blood sugar levels at a. Blood sugar that is low at a.
Symptoms of the Somogyi effect start with high blood glucose levels upon waking that do not respond to increased insulin doses. The symptoms also include low blood glucose levels at a.
Here, learn more about high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia. The Somogyi effect occurs in people with diabetes who use insulin therapy to manage their condition. These factors can cause blood glucose levels to fall too low. The body then responds by releasing hormones to raise the levels.
However, sometimes the levels of blood sugar rise too high. Before a doctor can diagnose the Somogyi effect, a person will need to take blood glucose readings over several nights. Low blood sugar readings at a. It can show other periods of low blood sugar that may be resulting in rebound hyperglycemia. This can help a person manage the risks associated with high blood sugar. Some people do not experience characteristic symptoms of low blood sugar and may be unaware that they have it.
If levels of blood glucose fall too low, there can be serious consequences. Here, find out more about the impact of low blood sugar.
The only way to prevent the Somogyi effect is to keep blood sugar levels stable through effective glucose management. Anyone who finds it hard to manage fluctuations in blood sugar levels should speak to a doctor, who will help adjust their treatment plan. A doctor may recommend CGM for the long-term management of diabetes and the Somogyi effect. A CGM system can alert people when their blood sugar dips too high or low.
A person may need to adjust their insulin dosage, and taking a higher dosage at night can increase the risk of the Somogyi effect. For this reason, the doctor may recommend checking blood sugar levels at a. If significant fluctuations occur, the doctor may recommend increasing the dosage gradually to give the body more time to adjust.
What are the best bedtime snacks for people with diabetes? Find out here. Adjusting the diabetes treatment plan to better manage blood sugar levels can help resolve the Somogyi effect. Anyone experiencing fluctuations in glucose levels and high blood sugar in the morning should discuss this with a doctor before making any changes to their insulin treatment.
In addition to insulin management, diet, exercise, and other lifestyle factors can help control glucose levels and affect the outlook for people with diabetes. I have recently had a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. I am noticing that I have high blood sugar in the morning, but I do not know if it is the Somogyi effect or the dawn phenomenon.
Does it matter which one it is? Distinguishing between the Somogyi effect and dawn phenomenon is important, as it may indicate how the medication needs adjusting. Considering that no notable low blood sugar incidence during the night occurs with the dawn phenomenon, the person may need additional medication timed to lower their morning levels.
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Somogyi effect: Causes and prevention. Medically reviewed by Deborah Weatherspoon, Ph. What is it? What is the Somogyi effect? Share on Pinterest The Somogyi effect leads to high glucose levels in the morning.
Somogyi effect vs. Share on Pinterest Checking for low glucose levels at 3. When to see a doctor. Treatment and prevention. Share on Pinterest A person may need to adjust the dose and timing of insulin. Q: I have recently had a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes drug significantly cuts body weight in adults with obesity.
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The Dawn Phenomenon: What It Is and How to Fix It
The dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi effect cause high blood sugar levels, especially in the morning before breakfast, in people who have diabetes. If the blood sugar level drops too low in the early morning hours, hormones such as growth hormone, cortisol, and catecholamines are released. These help reverse the low blood sugar level but may lead to blood sugar levels that are higher than normal in the morning. An example of the Somogyi effect is:. The Somogyi effect can occur any time you or your child has extra insulin in the body. To sort out whether an early morning high blood sugar level is caused by the dawn phenomenon or Somogyi effect, check blood sugar levels at bedtime, around 2 a. A continuous glucose monitor could also be used throughout the night.
NCBI Bookshelf. Gizem Reyhanoglu ; Anis Rehman. Authors Gizem Reyhanoglu 1 ; Anis Rehman 2. The Somogyi effect, also known as the "chronic Somogyi rebound," or "posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia," was a theory proposed in the s by Dr. Louis, MO, United States. More recent studies involving continuous glucose monitoring CGM , however, have disputed this theory.
For people who have diabetes, the Somogyi effect and the dawn phenomenon both cause higher blood sugar levels in the morning. The dawn.
Somogyi effect: Causes and prevention
The dawn phenomenon, also called the dawn effect, is the term used to describe an abnormal early-morning increase in blood sugar glucose — usually between 2 a. Some researchers believe the natural overnight release of the so-called counter-regulatory hormones — including growth hormone, cortisol, glucagon and epinephrine — increases insulin resistance, causing blood sugar to rise. High morning blood sugar may also be caused by insufficient insulin the night before, insufficient anti-diabetic medication dosages or carbohydrate snack consumption at bedtime. If you have persistently elevated blood sugar in the morning, checking your blood sugar once during the night — around 2 a.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Corpus ID: The dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi effect - two phenomena of morning hyperglycaemia. Krysiak and B. Krysiak , B. Morning hyperglycaemia in diabetic subjects may be caused by the dawn phenomenon, or the Somogyi effect, or poor glycaemic control.
In subjects with Type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus the nocturnal insulin requirements to maintain euglycaemia were assessed by means of i. The insulin requirements decreased after midnight to a nadir of 0. Thereafter, the insulin requirements increased to a peak of 0. The nocturnal insulin requirements and the dawn phenomenon were highly reproducible on three separate nights.
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